Current situation and Prospect of engines for fork

2022-10-15
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The current situation and Prospect of forklift engines

Abstract This paper mainly discusses the industry profile, supporting models, technical parameters and characteristics of supporting internal combustion engines for internal combustion forklifts in China, and puts forward some suggestions and prospects for future development

key words: internal combustion forklift internal combustion engine matching

the composition proportion of forklift power unit in China is generally: internal combustion forklift accounts for 93.86% of all forklifts, battery forklift accounts for 6.14%; Among all internal combustion forklifts, diesel forklifts account for 62.4% and gasoline forklifts account for 37.6%. According to the lifting capacity of forklifts, t accounts for 75.9% of all internal combustion forklifts; Diesel forklifts account for 60% of internal combustion forklifts with a lifting capacity of T, and gasoline forklifts account for only 16% of internal combustion forklifts with a lifting capacity of more than 5T, with a decreasing trend. Among all gasoline forklifts, the lifting capacity of T accounts for 80.8%, t accounts for 7.9%, and the rest to solve the problem of blank homogenization and consistency is less than 1.75t; Among all diesel forklifts, the lifting capacity of T accounts for 72.9%, and the lifting capacity of T accounts for 22.2%. The sum of the two accounts for more than 95% of all diesel forklifts. Gasoline engine driven forklifts generally have a cylinder diameter of less than 92mm, while diesel forklifts use multi cylinder engines with a cylinder diameter of less than 105mm

1 current situation of forklift engines

the main power unit of the existing forklift is the diesel engine of the gasoline engine. Very few manufacturers are equipped with liquefied engines. Domestic supporting gasoline engines include 475, 480, 492, 495 and Jiefang CA10 models; Diesel engines include 285, 290, 485, 490, 495, 498, 4100, 4105, 698, 6102, 6110, 6130 and other models. Except for a few engines for construction machinery, most of the above models are automotive, general-purpose, or similar variants

see Table 1 for the main technical parameters of supporting engines used in domestic forklifts. Due to the limitations of accessories, materials, and process level, there is still a certain gap compared with similar foreign products in terms of noise, smoke, emission, reliability test data, dynamic display of test curve, service life, etc. Forklifts exported and used by domestic airports, ports and foreign-funded enterprises are mostly equipped with imported engines. It mainly includes A15, H20, H25 and other gasoline engines from Nissan, flb1, C240, 6BD1 and other diesel engines from Isuzu, DC24 diesel engines from Daewoo, South Korea, Xa, HA and other diesel engines from maesta, Japan, 1004 from Perkins engine company, 8061si35 from Iveco, Italy and 6d16, 6d22c, 6d22tc and other models from Mitsubishi, Japan

Table 1 main technical parameters of some forklift supporting engines

2 supporting requirements of forklift engines

forklifts are used in a wide range of areas, with great differences in climate, harsh working environment, large dust, frequent changes in working conditions, and heavy load. Therefore, the forklift engine should have good power and fuel economy, working reliability, long service life, good cold start performance and easy maintenance. At the same time, it also requires compact structure, small volume, and meet the damage protection index of standards and regulations. Generally, a good forklift engine should have the following basic characteristics:

(1) it can adapt to continuous and lasting work and bear relatively heavy loads, and the rated power is hourly power. Forklift Gasoline Engine shall be equipped with speed limiter

(2) forklift engines are often subject to large impact and strong vibration during operation, so the body and accessories should have sufficient stiffness and strength, and three-point support is often used for installation and fixation

(3) in order to ensure that it can work under rapidly changing load conditions, it is generally advisable to use a full program governor, whose instantaneous speed regulation rate should be less than 12%, and the stable speed regulation rate should be less than 8%

(4) in order to adapt to the working environment of ports and wharfs, the engine is required to have greater torque adaptability. Generally, the torque reserve coefficient should be greater than 12% (except for torque converter)

(5) in order to meet the needs of hydraulic pumps and auxiliary equipment, the engine should have auxiliary power output. For medium and small tonnage forklifts, the hydraulic pump should be directly installed on the engine, and its auxiliary output power is required to be 50% - 100% of the total power

(6) forklifts are often operated on inclined ground. It is required that the engine can work normally in the state of front and rear or left and right tilt. Generally, the engine is required to work under the conditions of trim 20 and heel 15

(7) forklifts often operate in environments with high dust content in the air. It is required to have a high-efficiency air filter, and dust seals should be provided at the oil filler, vent and pipe joint

(8) in order to adapt to work under -40 C - +45 C climatic environment, there are special requirements for fuel, lubricating oil, lubricating grease, coolant, battery, etc., and the relevant systems should be modified. In order to solve the problem of cold start in cold areas, Shidai polyether series products have been identified by Jiangsu provincial scientific and technological achievements as being at the international advanced level. Areas should have anti overheating devices

(9) in order to meet the needs of working in plateau areas, superchargers should be set to compensate for the reduction of plateau power. It is required to work in areas with an altitude of 1000-2000m or even 3000m without reducing power

(10) forklifts operating in tunnels, cabins and other environments shall be equipped with exhaust gas purification devices; The electrical equipment of forklift trucks with large wading depth shall be sealed and protected; Special explosion-proof facilities are required for operation in an environment with gas

(11) have high reliability and long service life. The target value for the newly developed forklift engine should be: the first failure period of the diesel engine should be greater than 800H. The first overhaul period is 6000-10000h; The target value of gasoline engine refers to the requirements of automobile engine

(12) environmental indicators such as exhaust emissions, smoke intensity and noise of forklift engines should meet the provisions of national standards or industrial standards, and should be in line with international standards as soon as possible

(13) the volume power ratio, fuel and oil consumption rate, rotational speed reserve coefficient, minimum working stable speed and mechanical vibration technical performance indicators of the engine should meet the supporting requirements of forklifts

3 suggestions for future development

(1) special engines for forklifts should be developed. For many years, the forklift industry strongly hopes to have domestic special forklift engines, especially the forklift project of Yinshi has not introduced corresponding supporting engines, which limits the full localization of the introduced technology. Over the past 30 years, forklift products have made great progress, but the maximum annual output has been hovering around 20000 sets. The demand for forklift engines is less than 1% of the output of all multi cylinder internal combustion engines. Because the internal combustion engine industry is a highly technology intensive industry. Products are suitable for large-scale production according to professional division of labor, and forklifts are characterized by small batches and many varieties, so it is uneconomical to build a forklift engine factory. It is suggested that the forklift industry should strengthen cooperation with the internal combustion engine industry, research and test the internal combustion engine as a whole, optimize the engine product structure, and meet the needs of the development of the forklift industry

(2) the selection of forklift engines should be relatively centralized. At present, the selection of engines in the forklift industry is "miscellaneous, messy and scattered". Forklifts of the same tonnage often choose products from multiple engine factories. According to incomplete statistics, the forklift industry now selects more than 50 models of domestic engines (excluding more than 10 imported models), with more than 100 varieties of variants, which are supplied by more than 30 engine manufacturers. For example, a factory produces two models of 485 and 490 engines. In order to meet the requirements of the forklift main engine factory, it also produces forklift special water inlet pipes with small differences in size, structure and shape, crankshaft pulley, flywheel, clutch housing, air inlet pipe, chlorine discharge pipe, thermostat housing and fan cushion block, forming more than 40 varieties. This situation has also brought difficulties to the production organization of the engine factory, and the production cost has increased accordingly, bringing trouble to the maintenance of users and the purchase of accessories. It is suggested to select and plan forklift engines for key enterprises and famous and high-quality products, formulate forklift engine series and specification spectrum as soon as possible, and change the current situation of "miscellaneous, scattered and disordered"

(3) the manufacturing quality of forklift engine is greatly improved. It is reported that the failure rate of domestic engines generally accounts for about 40% of the number of failures. The outstanding problem is the poor reliability, the first failure period and the failure interval are well-organized, and there is a large gap compared with foreign advanced products. The main faults are "water leakage, oil leakage and air leakage", which not only has a large number of faults, but also has a high fault repetition rate; The second is the failure of fuel system and electrical system, and the difficulty of starting some diesel engines with non direct injection combustion chamber. This is a problem that the internal combustion engine industry is trying to solve

(4) environmental protection indicators need to be improved. Forklifts mostly work in workshops, warehouses, cabins, docks and other places, and have high requirements for environmental indicators such as exhaust emissions, smoke intensity, noise and so on. At present, there is a big gap between the corresponding standards formulated by the internal combustion engine industry in China and the similar standards of advanced countries. Environmental protection has become a global focus in the 21st century. The manufacturing level of engines in China lags behind that of advanced countries for about 10-20 years. Among domestic engines, supercharging technology is not widely used, electronic control technology is far from reaching the practical stage, and LPG engines have not been mass produced. At present, it is the common aspiration of the engine industry and forklift industry to apply new technologies, develop forklift engines with energy conservation, material saving, low pollution and high reliability, and change the passive situation of relying on imports

(5) promote unity and develop economies of scale. When setting up forklift enterprise groups, we should consider the production and matching of engines. It is suggested to adopt various ways to carry out horizontal alliance with supporting engine plants, from close alliance to annexation of some suitable engine plants with better conditions, so that they can directly serve forklifts and construction machinery, so as to better solve the problem that the supporting new metal oxide semiconductors for forklift engines can improve image resolution and reduce production costs

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