On the development trend of electromechanical inte

2022-09-23
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On the development trend of electromechanical integration technology

[Abstract] electromechanical integration technology is an interdisciplinary technology, which has developed rapidly in recent years. Its development trend is optical electromechanical integration, flexibility, intelligence, biomimetic systematization and miniaturization

[Key words] electromechanical integration technology; Information technology; Development trend

mechatronics technology is an application-oriented interdisciplinary technology. It is the result of the organic integration and mutual penetration of mechanical technology, microelectronics technology, information technology and control technology. Today, electromechanical integration technology is developing rapidly, and electromechanical integration products are changing with each passing day

I. development history of electromechanical integration technology

the word electromechanical integration was first coined by Yaskawa electric company in Japan when it was registered for business in the late 1960s. At that time and in the 1970s, people always regarded Mechatronics as the combination of machinery and electronics. Mechatronics technology and Mechatronics were used together in China in the early stage, and mechatronics has become more popular in recent years

In the 1980s, information technology emerged. The performance of microprocessors is improved, which is used by more advanced mechatronics products, such as numerical control machine tools, industrial robots and automotive electronic control systems. After the introduction of microcomputer as a key technology into the aircraft system, the mechanical and electronic system has been widely used in the aspects of high-level control, too long-term contract, deep integration by means of equity participation or cross shareholding, exhaust control, vibration control and airbag

information technology drives mechanical systems to use databases to varying degrees, including washing machines and other consumer goods. In this way, it is increasingly important to explore the system design method of mechatronics, molding and system integration, as well as the implementation of concurrent engineering design and control. In addition, optics has also entered mechatronics, creating a new field of optical mechatronics

in the 1990s, communication technology has entered the electromechanical products. It is good to be integrated after five years of normal use. Machines can be remotely controlled like robot systems. Computer controlled networking electromechanical integration, which is closely related to virtual reality multimedia and other technologies, is becoming increasingly popular. Some Mechatronics machines can be used for both purposes, and some are more versatile in performance. In particular, the development of micro sensor and actuator technology, the combination of semiconductor technology based on lithography and traditional Mechatronics miniaturization methods, has created a new branch of mechatronics, micro electromechanical integration, which is characterized by precision engineering and system integration. Although the micromachining method is not yet mature, it will gradually become an integral part of the integrated control system. After that, mechatronics developed with the development of automation technology, and entered the 21st century steadily

II. Development trend of typical mechatronics products

(I) CNC machine tools

at present, China has the largest number of machine tools in the world (nearly 3.2 million), but CNC machine tools account for only about 5% and the strength will decline significantly. Most of them are ordinary CNC (CNC machine tools in developed countries account for 10%). In recent years, CNC machine tools have made great progress in the following technical fields in order to adapt to the development of processing technology

1. High speed. Due to the popularity of high-speed machining technology, machine tools have generally improved the speed of all aspects. The lathe spindle speed is increased from 3000 ~ 4000r/min to 8000 ~ 10000r/min; The spindle speed of milling machine and machining center is increased from 4000 ~ 8000r/min to more than 12000 ~ 40000 R/min; The fast moving speed increased from the past 10 ~ 20m/min to 48m/min, 60m/mni, 80m/min, 120m/min; While increasing the speed, it is required to increase the starting acceleration of moving parts, from 0.5g (gravitational acceleration) of general machine tools in the past to 1.5g ~ 2G, up to 15g; Linear motors have been used on machine tools, and a large number of built-in spindle motors are used on the spindle

2. High precision. The positioning accuracy of CNC machine tools has been improved from 0.01 ~ 0.02mm to about 0.008; The sub micron machine tool reaches about 0.0005mm; Nano machine tools reach 0.005 ~ 0.01um; CNC systems and machine tools with a minimum resolution of 1nm (0.000001mm) have come out

the interpolation technology of more than two axes in NC is greatly improved. Nano interpolation enables the circular arc generated by the linkage of the two axes to reach the roundness of 1U. Before interpolation, multi program pre reading greatly improves the interpolation quality, and automatic corner processing can be carried out

3. Compound processing, a large number of new structure machine tools appear. Such as 5-axis and 5-facet compound processing machine tools, 5-axis and 5-linkage processing of various special-shaped parts. At the same time, various novel machine tool structures are derived, including 6-axis virtual axis machine tool, series parallel hinge machine tool, etc., which adopt special mechanical structure, special operation mode of numerical control, and special programming requirements

4. Use various efficient tools with special functions to make CNC machine tools even more powerful. For example, due to the high-pressure coolant directly cooling the cutting edge of the rotary head and removing chips, the efficiency of the inner cooling rotary head is greatly improved when turning the deep hole. The cutting speed of processing rigid parts can reach 1000m/min, and that of processing aluminum parts can reach 5000m/min

5. Openness and joint management of CNC machine tools. The openness and joint management of CNC machine tools have become the basic requirements for the use of CNC machine tools. It is not only a necessary means to improve the starting rate and productivity of CNC machine tools, but also a method for enterprises to rationalize and optimize the use of these manufacturing means. Therefore, computer integrated manufacturing, network manufacturing, remote diagnosis, virtual manufacturing, concurrent engineering and other new technologies have developed on the basis of CNC machine tools, which will inevitably become a major trend in the development of manufacturing industry in the 21st century

II) automatic machine and automatic production line

various automatic machines, automatic production lines and various automatic equipment widely used in national economic production and life are another concrete embodiment of the current application of electromechanical integration technology. For example, the automatic beer production line of 2000 ~ 80000 bottles/h; 18000 ~ 120000 cans/h can filling production line; Various high-speed cigarette production lines; Various printing and packaging production lines; Postal letter automatic sorting and processing production line; Automatic production line of cans; Febopp three-layer coextrusion biaxially oriented polypropylene film production lines, etc. modern electronic technology and sensing technology are widely used in these automates or production lines. Such as programmable controller, frequency converter, man-machine interface control device and photoelectric control system. The level of automata and production line products in China has leapt a big step over that of more than 10 years ago, and its technical level has reached or exceeded that of developed countries in the late 1980s. More and more enterprises use these automata and production lines, and there is an increasing demand for relevant personnel to maintain and manage these equipment

third, the development trend of electromechanical integration technology

the digital, networking, integrated and personalized information technology revolution triggered by microelectronic technology, software technology, computer technology and communication technology has not only a profound impact on the development of global science and technology, economy, society and military, but also a profound impact on the development trend of electromechanical integration. Experts predict that mechatronics technology will develop in the following directions:

(I) optical Mechatronics direction

General mechatronics system is composed of sensing system, energy (next in pp/2 silicon oxide composite system, page 80) (continued from page 81) (power) system, information processing system, mechanical structure and other components. The introduction of optical technology and the use of its inherent characteristics can effectively improve the sensing system, energy system and information processing system of electromechanical integration system

(II) flexibility direction

Future mechatronics products, control and execution systems have sufficient redundancy, strong flexibility, can better cope with emergencies, and are designed as self-discipline distribution systems. In this system, each subsystem works independently of each other. The subsystem serves the overall system and has its own self-discipline, which can make different responses according to different environmental conditions. Its characteristic is that the subsystem can generate its own information and attach the given information. On the overall premise, the action can be changed. In this way, the ability (flexibility) of the system is obviously increased, and the failure of a subsystem will not affect the whole system

(III) intelligent direction

in the future, the holographic characteristics of mechatronics products will be more and more obvious, and the level of intelligence will be higher and higher. This is mainly due to the development of fuzzy technology and information technology (especially software and chip technology)

IV. biomimetic systematization direction

Future Mechatronics devices rely heavily on information, and are often unstable in static structure, but stable in dynamic (working). This is somewhat similar to a living creature: when the control system (brain) stops working, the creature dies, and when the control system (brain) works, the creature is very energetic. As far as the current situation is concerned, although mechatronics products have the trend of biomimetic systematization, there is still a long way to go

v. direction of miniaturization

at present, submicron mechanical components have been manufactured in the laboratory by using the etching technology in the manufacturing process of semiconductor devices. When this achievement is used in practical products, there is no need to distinguish between the mechanical part and the controller part. At that time, machinery and electronics can be fully integrated into the body, and the executive structure, sensors, CPUs, etc. can be integrated together, with a small volume, and form a self-discipline component. This miniaturization is an important development direction of mechatronics

[References]

[1] Dai Yong. Curriculum development of mechatronics technology major in Higher Vocational Education [m]. Beijing: Machinery Industry Press, 2004.

[2] Gu Jing. Modern machine tool equipment [m]. Beijing: Chemical Industry Press, 2001

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