Overview of the development history of printing te

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Overview of the development history of printing technology in China

the printing process can also be said to be the whole process of printing and reproduction of visual and tactile information, including pre press, printing, post press processing and sending. Is a door set; Photography, fine arts, arts and crafts, chemistry, electronics, computer software, hardware technology, and environmental protection considerations are complex and test a super technology. That is, the technology of copying art, words and images in batches as required through overall planning, photography, word processing, art design, color separation, plate making, printing and post press forming

various norms, procedures and operating methods to realize printing

printing, as a technology of image and text reproduction, its social significance lies in that it records and spreads the corresponding historical culture while copying words and images. Therefore, the country that first appeared printing technology must be an ancient country of human civilization. Printing, as a practical technology for reproduction, was invented by the Chinese people. The seal we are familiar with is its early prototype. Seals appeared very early in the history of our country. About the Yin Dynasty, there were a large number of seals made of metal, stone, pottery and bone. In the early days, seals were mostly in Yin script, that is, the characters were concave to make the printing surface of all measurement and control systems more accurate. Later, seals in Yang script appeared, that is, the characters were protruding from the printing surface. The main function of seals in history was to prove the marks or marks, which was not a process form with replication as the main purpose, but simple seals included the profound principles of relief and intaglio in replication technology, For the invention of printing technology in the concept of printing to a very important enlightenment

overview of development history

in the early Tang Dynasty, the Chinese invented block printing, using pear or jujube wood as plate material, carving pictures and texts with a knife, then painting ink on the plate, then covering the paper on the inked plate, and then applying pressure on the paper with a brush to complete the transfer of pictures and texts. There was an obvious defect in woodblock printing in this period, that is, every new graphic information needs to be re engraved with a new woodblock, and the woodblock carving process is very laborious and time-consuming, and the solution to this problem first appeared in China

in Song Dynasty, Bi Sheng invented clay movable type printing. Movable type is composed of single characters, which can be combined to print relevant graphic information, and can be reused after being disassembled

with the development of engraving technology and movable type printing, China invented the color engraving overprint plate in 1340 A.D., that is, the content of the same page is carved into several plates of the same size according to the color requirements, each of which uses one color and is printed on the same paper one by one, from the first two colors to the later five and seven colors. In the 1720s, the woodblock watermark version was invented, with fine engraving, beautiful color, moderate depth and freshness

movable type developed into the 14th century. German Gutenberg summarized the previous experience and printing technology achievements at that time, and developed lead, antimony and tin alloy movable type, which greatly reduced the cost of character printing, greatly improved the quality and speed, and made outstanding contributions to the history of world printing

Gutenberg was the first European to use movable type printing. Historical records about Gutenberg are not abundant. At present, it is uncertain whether he developed lead movable type by referring to the movable type technology of Eastern countries or the results of his independent research. It should be said that Gutenberg's most important contribution is not to use movable type printing, but to develop the casting technology of movable type. Gutenberg was not the first person to use metal movable type printing. In the early 11th century, China first invented clay movable type, but its resistance to India was not very ideal. After the invention of Chinese movable type technology, it spread to today's North Korea earlier. In the mid-13th century, North Koreans used bronze to cast movable type. About 100 years later, Gutenberg developed a lead alloy movable type process, which is easier to cast and has better printing effect, However, lead is a recognized metal with high toxicity. It produces harmful gas during heating and cooling, which is harmful to human body

In 1845, the British made a photosensitive solution composed of dichromate and glue, thus realizing the production of copper zinc plates by photographic method. This is another important development in the history of printing. As a result, the ability of human beings to copy reality has made a big step forward due to the introduction of photographic images into printing, especially for the recording of historical data

in the early days, printing was carried out on manual wooden printing machines. Gutenberg's era was of this type. At that time, it often required a busy day to complete 200 pages of printed matter. In the mid-17th century, it was the same day, and 2000 pages of printed matter could be printed, which increased the efficiency by 10 times. Today, Heidelberg's Speedmaster series offset press can print more than 10000 single prints per hour. If calculated in days, the efficiency has been increased by at least 100 times. After World War II, the computer has brought a revolutionary change to the prepress technology; The development of text typesetting from manual Phototypesetter to full-automatic laser scanning Phototypesetter has made the text typesetting leap from the lead and fire era to the electricity and light era. In the 1970s, the invention and use of electronic color separation machine made image processing faster and higher quality

In the 1990s, with the rapid development of computer hardware and software in the professional field, in countries and regions with developed printing industry technology, the operation process of commercial printing gradually realized more perfect digitalization. Especially in the prepress field, the emergence of color desktop publishing system (DTP) has brought another revolution to the contemporary printing industry. Under the control of computers, scanning, digital cameras, direct plate making, digital proofing, digital printing machines and other equipment have realized digital joint operation. The printing industry has entered the 21st century, and the popularity and rapid growth of international contacts have made it possible to realize cross international printing business. Printing, once an ancient term, is for every relevant practitioner today, Both will be the technical fields that need continuous and long-term learning to effectively control

I. The Origin of printing

printing is one of the four great inventions that have made great contributions to the cause of human progress in China. As far as the impact of these four great inventions is concerned, printing should be the first. In real life, people are inseparable from printed matter all the time in the fields of politics, economy, culture and even life

as far as traditional printing is concerned, there must be a printing plate for printing, while the traditional printing plate in China is carved manually. It can be seen that the emergence of manual carving technology is actually the source of printing. Historical documents and unearthed cultural relics prove that the hand carving technology was used to make pottery and print with bark cloth in the late Neolithic period more than 5000 years ago, which is the beginning of printing technology. In the Shang Dynasty, hand carving techniques were widely used to carve characters on or around tortoise shells and animal bones. Since then, the manual carving technology has become more and more mature, and has been used in the production of clocks, tripods, Yi, utensils, inscriptions, seals, bricks and tiles, which has led to the transfer and copying technologies that are quite similar to printing, such as sealing, sealing, printing and dyeing, rubbing and so on, laying a technical foundation for the development and improvement of printing

printing is reproduction. Printing transfers the pictures and texts on the printing plate to the substrate through printing ink. Printing ink and substrate are essential for printing. The substrate of printing is mainly fabric and paper. In the Eastern Han Dynasty and the first year of emperor Yuanxing (A.D. 105), the eunuch Cailun, on the basis of summarizing the paper made by his predecessors, made high-quality paper from bark, rags, old fish and other fiber raw materials, which was called Caihou paper in history. The invention of paper and the continuous improvement of paper quality have laid a material foundation for the development of printing

the content of printing as the object of transfer and reproduction is no more than two categories: image and text. Due to the extensive demand of the society for text, it has directly contributed to the maturity and perfection of manual carving technology, and the text has evolved into a simple, standardized and easy to block printing text with few strokes. The existing literature shows that the evolution of simplified Chinese characters has roughly gone through the following stages: graphic characters in the Neolithic period; From the Shang Dynasty to the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, the large seal characters, including gold inscriptions and inscriptions; Small seal script in Qin Dynasty; Official script in Han Dynasty: regular script in Wei and Jin Dynasties; The song style and modern simplified characters after the Song Dynasty. In the process of the evolution of characters, the invention and development of the pen made the characters rapidly evolve into standard characters for writing, engraving and printing

any technology in the world is based on the needs of society, and printing is no exception. The social environment and its demand for the reproduction of printing are one of the indispensable prerequisites for the emergence of printing. This technology has sprouted, developed and improved with the needs of social, cultural and material life

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